Qualitative Coding Assignment Question
RES 8926 Qualitative Data Analysis
Nova Southeastern University
June 27, 2021
Creswell (2018) defines Grounded Theory as narrative research that focuses on individual stories told by participants. The intent of a grounded theory study is to move beyond description and to generate or discover a theory, a “unified theoretical explanation” for a process or an action. As it is noted as a well-known methodology employed in many research studies, it involves the collection and analysis of data. The theory is “grounded” in actual data, which means the analysis and development of theories happen after the data has been collected (Charmaz, 2001). Participants in the study have experienced the process, and the development of the theory might help explain practice or provide a framework for further research. A key idea is that this theory development does not come “off the shelf” but rather is generated or “grounded” in data from participants who have experienced the process (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).
The theory was introduced by Glaser & Strauss in 1967 to legitimize qualitative research. The primary objective was to expand upon an explanation of a phenomenon by identifying the key elements of that phenomenon and then categorizing the relationships of those elements to the context and process of the experiment. The theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analyzed using comparative analysis. More recently, Charmaz (2009) has advocated for a constructivist grounded theory, introducing a unique perspective into the conversation about procedures. Charmaz explains grounded theory has considerable significance because it (a) provides explicit, sequential guidelines for conducting qualitative research; (b) offers specific strategies for handling the analytic phases of inquiry; (c) streamlines and integrates data collection and analysis; (d) advances conceptual analysis of qualitative data; and (e) legitimizes qualitative research as scientific inquiry. Grounded theory methods have earned their place as a standard social research method and have influenced researchers from varied disciplines and professions.
The defining characteristics of the grounded theory include simultaneous involvement in data collection and analysis, construction of analytic codes and categories from data, the use of the constant comparative analysis that involves making comparisons during all steps of the process. Corbin and Strauss (2015), provide a structured approach to grounded theory describing the major characteristics of grounded theory that might be incorporated into a research study. The research focuses on a process that has distinct steps or phases that occur over time. In a grounded theory study, the researcher seeks to develop a theory within the process. For example, a theory of faculty support may show how faculty are supported over time, by specific resources, by specific actions taken by individuals, with individual outcomes that enhance the research performance of a faculty member (Creswell & Clark, 2011).
In grounded theory-based analysis, the researcher generally analyzes the data by finding repeating themes by thoroughly reviewing the data, coding the emergent themes with keywords and phrases, grouping the codes into concepts hierarchically, and then categorizing the concepts through relationships. These procedures involved in the data analysis phase are described in relation to the type of grounded theory approach. For instance, the procedures can be structured and then followed by the pattern of developing categories, selecting a category that will be a primary focus of the theory, and then detailing additional categories (axial coding) to form a theoretical model. Selective coding follows as the researcher crosses the intersection of the research. The data analysis can be presented in a less structured manner based on developing the theory by piecing together implicit meanings about a category with providing memos throughput the process (Creswell, 2018).
There are various types of qualitative case studies. These studies are distinguished by the focus of analysis for the bounded case, such as whether the case involves studying one individual, several individuals, a group, an entire program, or an activity. With the intent of case analysis, three variations exist in terms of intent including the single instrumental case study, the collective or multiple case study, or the intrinsic case study. An instrumental case study is a case (i.e. person, specific group, occupation, department, organization) providing insight on a particular issue, redraw generalizations, or it builds theory. Creswell (2018) defines the researcher’s role as one who researcher focuses on an issue or concern and then selects one bounded case to illustrate this issue.
The collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate an understanding of a particular issue. In view, one issue or concern is selected, but the researcher selects multiple case studies to illustrate the issue. Yin (2009) suggests that the multiple case study design uses the logic of replication, in which the inquirer replicates the procedures for each case. The difference between an intrinsic and instrumental case study is not the case but rather the purpose of the study because an intrinsic case study is a case of primary interest exploring specific issues about a person, specific groups, occupation, or an organization, building a theory and redrawing generalizations. This study focuses on the case itself because the case presents an unusual or unique situation.
To begin, one has to determine if a case study approach is appropriate for studying the research problem. Next, identify the intent of the study and select the case (or cases). In conducting case study research, it is recommended that investigators consider the intent and type of case study needed. Once the need is identified, develop procedures for conducting the data collection drawing on multiple data sources. This will be an extensive process due to the common sources such as observations, interviews, documents, and/or audiovisual materials needed. Lastly, specify the analysis approach on which the case description integrates an analysis theme and contextual information. When using multiple cases, a typical format is needed to provide a detailed description of each case and themes within the case, called a within-case analysis. This is followed by a thematic analysis across the cases, called a cross-case analysis, as well as assertions or an interpretation of the meaning of the case (Creswell, 2018).
Interview Transcript: Track 1
Yael Greenberg: Today is Thursday, April 3rd, 2003. My name is Yael Greenberg, oral history program assistant for the Florida Studies Center. We continue a series of interviews in our studio here in the Tampa Campus Library with USF faculty, students, and alumni, in order to commemorate 50 years of university history. Today we will be interviewing Vicki Ahrens, who came to USF in 1969. First as a student, later she became a staff member of the university in 1974, and left the university in June of 1994. Good morning, Vicki, how are you?
Vicki Ahrens: Good morning. I’m doing well, thanks.
YG: Let’s begin by you taking us to the year you arrived in Tampa; and what circumstances brought you to the University of South Florida?
VA: It’s sort of interesting. I’ve been thinking about these things and at that time back in the late ’60s there weren’t as many choices of universities in Florida as there are now. There were really only three state—four state universities: Florida, Florida State, FAMU, and USF, which was the new kid on the block. Being the first kid in my family to ever think about going to college, I decided to do something completely different and selected the University of South Florida. Nobody else I knew was coming here and I just kind of set out from my family home in Miami and said, “I’ll try USF and see what happens.” Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. described college in the 60 to having a limited number of opportunities to attend in Florida; only 4 choices to choose from Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: V.A. shares experience of being the first to attend college within the family which was a huge accomplishment back then; not common.
YG: What did the University of South Florida look like in 1969?
VA: Well, it looked a lot different than it does now. In fact, I’m struck every time I return to the campus since I’ve been gone at the drastic and dramatic physical changes to the campus. But Fowler Avenue was two-laned, there was a single restaurant seated where the University Mall currently is; there was a single hotel on the corner of Fowler and 30th Street, and the university, and that was it. That was all there was on Fowler Avenue. Now, it was paved then. There are some people who went to school here when Fowler Avenue wasn’t paved, but it was a paved road then. Fletcher was also a two-lane road with very little there. In fact, the first fast food restaurants that we had in the area were over on 56th street in that Temple Terrace area and it took a long time before the fast food era made it over to Fowler and Fletcher. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: Describes the feeling of present day vs in the 60s uses the wording I am stuck indicating an element of surprise when she sees how far campus has developed for students Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: A comprehensive description of where campus was located; 56th & Fowler
YG: When you first came here as a student, were there a lot of students coming to USF in 1969?
VA: USF was really very small then. It had much of a small school atmosphere. I think that’s one of the things that made USF special to me. It was an environment where you could really, really make a difference in what was going on; help shape the tradition, help shape the university. There were—we had just opened the Andros dorms. They, what is that, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, that group. I was among the first group that lived in Kappa Hall. Dorm government was big. And the on-campus community was very, very close. There was a lot of relationships between faculty and staff and students; a lot of expectation among faculty and staff that they would interact with students. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: Universities in the 60 had a small enrollment number Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Shares personal feeling as a student of how campus made her feel Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. describes the experiences of being a freshman and new initiatives for the university Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: New physical attribute of school; new dorm opened Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: A monumental experience as a student being one of the first to live in Kappa Hall (dorm) Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. described journey of student life that many relationships were built on campus as a student
Memo: 6/22/21: V.A. Shared a sense of pride attending USF. It was a very small environment that felt like a family feel and belonging.
And so it was very much a collegial environment. It was a very small feeling and acting, and yet USF was getting bigger and bigger, primarily through the commuter students that were living in the Tampa Bay area. So, you had sort of a small school within a large school, giving students really the opportunity on both sides of the coin. The small school experience where really everybody knew you, you could make a difference. You could get heavily involved in student life, and at the same time, the breadth and depth of career choices, major choices that only a larger school can offer. So, it was really a very nice compromise. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: A sense of compromise to be on a small campus but student life seemed large
YG: Were there a lot of other women attending college along with you?
VA: It’s interesting that you should ask the women question. In fact, when I was thinking through my early years at USF as an undergraduate student, I was remembering the whole issue of visitation in the resident halls. I was living in the residence halls at the time that there was that big to-do about men being able visit and go into women’s residence halls and one of the local dignitaries referred to on-campus dormitories as, “taxpayers whorehouses.” And there was a great hue and cry among the female students. And in fact, demonstrations if you will, about our interest in being able to maintain the opportunity to have guests in our residence halls, be they male or female. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: V.A. remembers the issue of visitation of men and women in the residence hall
I was a member of a social sorority and thinking back virtually everyone in the sorority was an education major. We had very, very few people doing anything other than education, that traditional route for women. And I think that, that time, the years that I was an undergraduate from ’69 to ’73, really was the time when we began to see the opportunities for women open up. And so it was just a fascinating time to be on a college campus; one that was growing like USF. We had the women’s issues coming to the forefront. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A shares experience of being a member of a social sorority Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: There were certain routes of schooling women took during the time frame
Of course it was the Vietnam War era and a lot of student activism with regard to what was going on in Vietnam. All of the guys that we were in school with were registered for the draft. There was the whole lottery thing, and, you know, when you graduated, what was your lottery number and how quickly were you going to be drafted, and so it was just kind of a fascinating time and something that, really, I think shaped a generation. And it just that little period of time from the mid ’60s to the mid ’70s really made a difference for women, for people, for political activism, and what young people can do to change the world. And I think there was just a lot of that stuff going on that our students today don’t see in the same way and don’t have the same opportunities to express themselves in many cases. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: This was the route designed for men back then. Men were likely to be drafted in the army and a sense of choice was limited versus today
YG: I want to go back to a couple of things that you said. You said that you were one of the first people in your family to go to college. Were you of traditional age to go to college?
VA: Yes. I came to USF right out of high school. I graduated in Miami and went to school. Graduated in the traditional four years. Like I said, I was involved in a social sorority, in dorm government, and student government. So, I just did the real traditional college experience in a very nontraditional setting, which was kind of fun. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/25/21: V.A. describes her educational journey of graduating high school and entering college Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/25/21: a sense of fun entering college
YG: Well, in terms of diversity in those early days, were—when you talked about women, were there African Americans or Hispanics that were going to school with you?
VA: Relatively little diversity on the campus at that time. Probably a handful of African Americans. Hispanics, because I grew up in Miami, I’ve never been real sensitive to the presence of Hispanics. I don’t know how to say that exactly, I don’t consider them to be a minority, so it doesn’t—I don’t have the same recollection of the Hispanic population because it’s just part of what I grew up with. But there were very few African Americans on campus at that time. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: Diversity was limited on campuses back in the 60s Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: Recalls very few African-Americans on campus in the 60s
Memo: 6/22/21: V.A. provided an insight on many issues that we see globally today such as gender dorms and visitation expectation, recruiting process of minority students, and race and diversity disparities.
And again, one of the things that, as I moved through my undergraduate career and got involved in working with new students, which is how I started as a professional at USF, one of the first things that happened when we established this new office called “New Student Relations, ” which was responsible for recruitment of students. USF had really, never done a lot of active recruitment of students. And at that point we needed—it was obvious that USF had the opportunity out there. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Lived experience as a student and how transition into a faculty member helped changed the trajectory for future students on campus
So, the university put together an office called the Office of New Student Relations. And there were three primary staff members there. One to recruit traditional aged freshmen, one to recruit minority students with an emphasis on African American students, and one to work with students over the traditional age. And so that was in 1973 when that office was developed. And so it was really the first time that USF took a real comprehensive look at the makeup of the student body and said, Here are the areas where we need to make the commitment, we need to look at what we’re doing here. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: Office put together to change the narrative at university trying to recruit minorities and over the traditional age students Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: C: 6/23/21: Colleges now use additional data points to strengthen college enrollment such GPA, geographic; not just race and gender alone
Because of the nature of the state university, USF has always been heavily loaded at the junior, senior level because of the influx of students from the Florida public community colleges. And so, this was really the first emphasis on the traditional age freshman, on the freshmen minority student, on reaching out to the community over the traditional age; and so that we can look at broadening that base of participation at USF.
YG: In terms of a major and a field of study, when you first came here in 1969, what kind of course were you taking?
VA: I just laugh about this because I came here as a math major. I thought that I would be a math teacher, one of my role models in high school. And so, but I had—the education thing was sort of secondary because everybody said, Oh no, you could go off and be an insurance actuary or something that uses this mathematics. And so I got into math. I was taking, of course, your general education courses, your freshman English and social studies courses. And then I hit my first semester of calculus. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L:6/23/21: Laughs about entering college with the idea of majoring in math Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. shares details of college experience as a student and how she experienced course classes
And actually, back then we were on the quarter system, so it was my first quarter of calculus. It was the second quarter of my freshman year. I can remember so vividly, the instructor was a graduate assistant, and he would start on a board over here on this side of the classroom and I mean, before you knew it, these chalkboards—back then, chalkboards, not whiteboards, chalkboards—were just full of this stuff all the way over here, and I had—I remember just sitting there, thinking, This is way too theoretical for me. You know, it had gotten to the point where I wasn’t relating to this math stuff. So, I backed off that and chose a different area eventually. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D. 6/23/21: V.A. describes campus tools using chalkboards in the 60s versus using whiteboards present day
But I was one of those people that changed their major a bunch of times before I actually settled in. And of course I’m not doing anything now that remotely relates to what I did academically. But the classes were relatively small then. We didn’t have the lecture halls that exist now because the buildings simply weren’t there. There was one over in the College of Fine Arts, and there were those rooms over in the physics building. But there were just weren’t a lot of large classrooms. So, as a result there weren’t a lot of large classes. All of the freshmen classes were—a lot of them were taught by teaching assistants, which people don’t realize that this has been pretty much a standard in higher education for years. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. describes not having lecture halls in the 60s vs campus classes now Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. describes college classes were taught be teaching assistants in the 60s vs professors now
And even as a young institution, USF was establishing graduate programs. And my freshman English course, my freshman math courses were all taught by TA’s and graduate students who were pursuing higher degrees. And so that—people think that that’s a big deal and it’s been like that forever and it doesn’t seem to have damaged any of the quality of the education. But I know that that’s one of the things that you sometimes hear students talking about, is that they don’t want teaching assistants.
Memo: 6/23/21: There are many changes of the university from the 60s to present day, such as the types of data points universities use to strengthen college enrollment and many classes were taught by teacher assistants back then.
And I’ve always been of course, of the opinion that sometimes a graduate assistant may do a better job of instruction than a full faculty member who is very interested in research and higher level pursuits and isn’t really interested in 18 year olds who are trying to figure out how to get themselves out of bed to go to class for the first time in their lives. And so, you know it’s just that I found my academic experience was really, really quite good. Although I don’t have a lot to compare it to because USF is the only place I’ve ever gone to school. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: Gives a strong opinion that graduate assistants perform better that full time faculty members Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/25/21: V.A. emphasizes that her academic experiences was a good one
YG: You mentioned that in those early days there was a lot of interaction between students and faculty and students and staff. Can you talk about the kinds of interactions that you had?
VA: All student organizations back then regardless of fraternities, sororities, interest groups, whatever they were, dorm government, were required to have an advisor from the faculty or the staff. You had to have that person, who was basically your link to the university administration. So, always student organizations were looking for faculty and staff who would participate, who had interest in what they were doing—their particular organization. And so, and that person who was asked to be that faculty or staff adviser typically took that role very seriously. They became a mentor to that student organization and to those student groups. So that there was always that kind of relationship with a single faculty or staff person. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: A description of fraternities & sororities requirements back in the 60s
There were also a fair number of freshmen mixers, or student mixers, or dances or whatever you want to call them, where there were faculty and staff who would chaperone. They would bring their spouses and it was very community oriented. It’s something I know now that a lot of schools are going back to as they’re looking at learning communities and establishing learning communities that create those relationships with faculty and staff. We had that from the beginning. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Back then freshman mixers were looked at as learning communities instead of campus parties
In fact, we had, you know, a dean of men and a dean of women and that whole structure. The university acted in loco parentis, in place of parents. The university staff were very involved in the wellbeing of the students. They considered it their personal obligation to not only deal with the academic education but with the social and personal development of students. So it was just—and when I became a member of the staff in 1974, that, again, was part of the expectation, that I would participate in student life and student activities. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Professors took on to look after students social well-being in addition to academics Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: V.A. made a commitment as a professor to mimic the same principles displayed while as a student on campus
And when there was the flea market kind of thing on a Wednesday or if there was a new student social or whatever, that I would be there meeting the new students, welcoming to the university and supporting their efforts in education. And back then the leadership for that came out of the division of student affairs and it was very, very student oriented. Very much, you know, that students were the center of the institution. And the undergraduate student was the center of the institution. And so there was a great deal of warm and fuzziness. And a lot of close relationships between faculty and staff and it was just a very pleasant, it was very nice to walk into a classroom building and say hello to a lot of faculty that you knew not only perhaps because you were in their class but because they were advisors for a student organization or they had been a chaperone at a student activity. It just created a real nice sense of community. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. Describes what leadership among faculty members looked like on campus back then Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: Experiences on campus was a warm and fuzzing feeling of the relationships between faculty and staff
YG: You mentioned dorm life, and I believed you had mentioned Kappa. Can you tell me what Kappa looked like in those early years?
VA: It looked like a concrete block. Small rooms. The lobby had Danish modern furniture in it that was burnt orange and it had this shag carpet, very ’60s. The first year that I lived on campus in ’69, ’70, we were still under a sign in/sign out process in the residence halls. And so, in the lobby of the dorm was a metal card slot with a punch card, if you will, for every resident of the building. And as you left you clocked out and when you came in you clocked in. And there was a person on-duty in the residence hall lobby 24 hours a day, and when you came in you had to show your ID, you had to punch in, you had to punch out, so that it was not the kind of open environment. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Physical description of dorm in the 60s-concrete block, shag carpet, Danish furniture Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: V.A. lived in the dorm ’69-’70 where it was a sign-in/sign-out process Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: Detailed description of how to clock in and out of the dorm with ID
Memo: 6/23/21: Differences of university from the 60s to present: Fraternities & sororities requirements, leadership decisions, dorm life and appearance, and meal plan changes.
Guests had to be escorted into the bedroom areas. So, they would call you from the lobby and say you had a visitor and then you’d come down stairs and you’d get your visitor and go upstairs. And so it was all very controlled. And at certain times of the evening there would be a check on the cards on who was still out. And we didn’t have hours, per se, but people were always aware of who was out, who wasn’t in yet, asking roommates and just making sure that everyone was okay in a very controlled kind of environment. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: 6/23/21: Description of guests being escorted to bedroom areas; first announced you had a visitor and you calculated hours, when hours ran out for the week you had to wait until hours replenish
And then we all of course had to be on the meal plan, so everybody ate together in the residence hall cafeteria area. And so again, that was another opportunity to create a lot of interaction because everybody who lived in the residence halls ate in the cafeteria. And lunch was only available back then from 11 to 1 or something like that. So, every single person who lived there was eating there. So, the social environment and all of the resident assistants and resident instructors who lived on campus ate in the residence halls. Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: D: 6/23/21: All students had to be on a meal plan it was not an option Comment by Caldwell, Rasheema: L: 6/23/21: Describes feeling as a student-good feeling to interact with others socially while at lunch
And because you ate in that confined period, you knew virtually everybody. And so it